Sustainable Development Report 2019

In 2019, the Company's total waste amounted to 849.1 thou- sand tons, reduced by 7.5% from2018 (918.5 million tons), which came mainly from the individual reduction of 8.7% of non-hazardous waste in the Metallurgy Sector. Almost 95% of the total quantity of waste produced concerned sterile and residues of bauxite, while the remaining 5% included aluminium, industrial and urban waste and materials that are collected and include metals scrap (e.g. iron and steel), batteries of vehicles, tyres, used lubricants, electrical and electronic equipment, paper, plastic, wood, glass, lamps and consumables of printers4 and pho- tocopy machines. The total waste reused, recycled and used in various ways, either by the Company itself or through third parties, reached 17.9% (2018: 17.7%) of the total waste produced (including bauxite residues. In this respect, more than 141,000 tons of bauxite residues were made available to the cement industry and for other uses, a quantity increased by 18.6% compared to 2018 More specifically: 2019 saw the continuation of the research project SCALE (Production of Scandium compounds and Scandium-Aluminium alloys from European resources), which aims to obtain Rare Earths and, in particular, Scandium (Sc) compounds and Scandium-Aluminium alloys from residues of the European metallurgical industry, such as Bauxite Residues. This project, with a total budget of €7 million, is coordinated by MYTILINEOS' Metallurgy sector and implemented by a consortium of 19 partners from 9 European countries, among which is the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The construction of a pilot plant has been successfully completed in the Metallurgy sector's facilities, to be used for the extraction of bauxite residues in an acidic environment for the production of Sc concentrate which will be further utilized in a pilot plant of another partner. The pilot plant will be operational in 2020 and is expected to utilize 2.5 tons of bauxite residues per month of operation. Scandium is a metal, classified as a rare earth element, whose global production does not exceed 15 tons (mainly from industrial by-products) and is used in “emerging” technological applications such as: (a) “Electrolytic” gas-fired power generation (SOFC), whose efficiency is twice that of today's thermal power plants, (b) very high resistance Aluminium-Scandium alloys, such as the Al-Sc-Mg alloy used by AIRBUS in 3D component printing technology ( scale-project.eu/ ). The ENSUREAL (Ensuring sustainable alumina production) research project, aiming to develop new methods of alumina production from alternative sources such as poorer bauxite deposits and bauxite residues, is progressing. In the framework of this project, the extraction of cast iron and alumina from bauxite residues will be tested on pilot basis in MYTILINEOS' Metallurgy sector, using a combination of pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy treatments. The first medium-scale smelting tests using Greek bauxite and bauxite residues were carried out successfully in Norway. In the framework of the program, the pyrometallurgy pilot unit of the Metallurgy sector will be reopened in 2020. ( ensureal.com/ ). The SIDEREWIN (Sustainable Electro-Wining of Iron) research project, coordinated by ArcelorMittal, aims to test, on a pilot basis, a new sustainable technology for producing iron by alcaline electrolysis. The MYTILINEOS Metallurgy sector, in collaboration with NTUA, are already examining the use of bauxite residues as an alternative source of iron in this process. The project; early results, on a laboratory scale, have achieved current efficiencies over 75%. ( siderwin-spire.eu/content/home ). The research project RemovAL (Removing the waste streams from the primary Aluminium production and other metal sectors in Europe), coordinated by MYTILINEOS' Metallurgy sector, was also continued. The project has a total budget of €11.5 and its Consortium numbers 27 partners, which include the largest alumina producers outside Asia (RUSAL, RIO TINTO, ALCOA), the European Aluminium Association and the International Aluminium Institute. The RemovAL project intends to test, on a pilot basis, different technologies for the utilization of bauxite residues. The technologies and pilot plants to be used in most cases have already been developed in previous or ongoing research projects and through RemovAL will be brought together and utilized as a common base for a European network of industrial symbiosis. In the framework of the project, a workshop titled “Towards an EU regulatory framework boosting use of slags and residues of the metal sector” in November 2019 in Brussels. The workshop brought together more than 50 participants from the European Commission and the aluminium, steel and copper metallurgy industries, who discussed the opportunities and legislative/ regulatory challenges facing the various metallurgical industries across Europe in connection with the utilization of their by-products. Non-Hazardous Waste (tonnes) [GRI 306-2] 2019 Controlled Landfill (Accumulation area for Bauxite Residues) 659,457.5 Controlled Landfill 6,490.8 Recycling / Reuse internally and at third party facilities 147,578.6 Storage for recovery 10,297.3 Storage in third-party facilities 2,495.6 Recovery / Exchange 9.9 Total 826,329.8 Hazardous Waste (tonnes) [GRI 306-2] 2019 Controlled Landfill for hazardous waste 16,783.1 Recycling/Recovery/Reuse internally and at third party facilities 4,028.0 Recovery / Exchange 1,693.0 Storage for recovery 256.1 Incineration 17.4 Storage in third-party facilities 38.1 Total 22,815.6 1,200,000 1,000,000 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 0 2017 2018 2019 827,571.1 898,280.1 826,329.8 Non-Hazardous Waste (tonnes) 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 2017 2018 2019 19,393.8 20,258.8 22,815.6 Hazardous Waste (tonnes) (corresponding to an additional 22,000 tons). By adopt- ing this practice, the Company has already reduced the annual quantity of Bauxite residues deposited in the area it has designated for this purpose, by about 10% since 2016. MYTILINEOS' environmental R&D activities focus on the exploitation of bauxite residues and the implemen- tation of innovativemethods for the production of alumina fromalternative sources . In 2019, the “SCALE” , “REMOVAL” and “ENSUREAL” projects were continued, under which €1.5million were invested in the aluminium plant for the installation of one pilot unit for the production of Scandium concentrate and one pilot pyrometallurgy unit, which are expected to operate in 2020. At the same time, the Company's Metallurgy sector launched its participation in two new five-year research projects, “BIORECOVER” and “AlSiCa”, in which it will provide know-how and by-products from the alumina production process. Results [GRI 103-3a-ii] 4. They are not included in the overall calculation of the weight of hazardous waste. 85 84

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